The consumer price index jumped by 0.8% in April -- a far larger increase than many had anticipated. The recent spike in the cost of goods and services has led to widespread concerns over inflation. If the cost of living continues to climb at such a rapid pace, it could outpace wage growth, weakening the buying power of the American consumer. Such an outcome would be a reversal of a long-term trend in much of the United States.

Over the last 10 years, real personal income per capita, a measure of annual earnings that is adjusted for inflation, climbed in the United States from $42,287 in 2010 to $53,071 in 2020. There are many potential factors that drove up real personal income, not the least of which is wage growth outpacing inflation.

Real personal income per capita in Indiana stands at $50,772, up over $10,000, or 26.4%, from 2010. One factor that can drive up personal income is the share of the population who are in the workforce. In Indiana, the share of the total population with a job increased from 43.2% to 44.2% between 2010 and 2020, a larger increase than in all but 13 other states.

Indiana's job market improved considerably during the decade. The number of people working climbed by 6.7%, a larger increase than most other states reported. Additionally, the state's annual jobless rate fell from 10.4% in 2010 to 7.1% in 2020.

Percent growth in real personal income per capita from 2010 to 2020 was calculated using data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Personal income figures were adjusted from current dollars to constant 2012 dollars using the U.S. personal consumption expenditure price index and were also adjusted for regional price differences using regional price parity in accordance with the methodology provided by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. These are the 16 states where incomes are rising the fastest.

RankState10-yr. chg. in real personal income per capita (%)Real personal income per capita, 2020 ($)10-yr. workforce participation chg. (ppt.)10-yr. chg. in avg. weekly hours worked (%)
1Utah+39.048,052+4.4-3.4
2California+35.053,097+2.7+2.4
3Illinois+32.057,412+1.5+0.3
4Colorado+31.755,369+1.4-2.3
5Idaho+31.246,567+2.9+1.2
6Michigan+30.550,706+1.3+1.5
7New York+29.756,186+1.3-2.1
8Arkansas+29.148,263+1.1-0.6
9Oregon+29.049,328+1.1+0.6
10Washington+28.855,607+0.5+2.3
11Pennsylvania+27.956,923-0.4+3.0
12Montana+27.150,465+0.2+0.6
13Arizona+26.845,103+1.1-0.6
14Indiana+26.450,772+1.0+0.3
15Nevada+25.848,896-0.80
16Ohio+25.752,849+1.3+2.4
17Georgia+25.248,554+1.3-0.3
18Massachusetts+24.763,468-0.4+0.6
19Iowa+23.754,460-0.6+0.9
20South Carolina+23.445,795+0.7-2.0
21Delaware+22.650,743-1.6+0.3
22Wisconsin+22.253,296+0.4+1.2
23Minnesota+22.055,774-0.7+3.3
24New Jersey+21.956,161-0.4+0.9
25Texas+21.850,434+0.50
26Kansas+21.555,204-0.0+0.6
27Nebraska+21.556,890-0.7-1.5
28Wyoming+21.460,259-3.6-4.2
29Tennessee+21.349,539+2.3-0.6
30New Hampshire+21.055,179-0.5+2.4
31Kentucky+20.846,530+0.40
32Alabama+20.647,598+0.8+0.6
33Maryland+20.655,980-1.0+0.9
34West Virginia+20.345,252-0.9+1.1
35Hawaii+20.343,546-3.6-0.3
36Florida+20.248,677+0.9-3.7
37New Mexico+20.244,320-1.1-2.9
38North Carolina+19.148,197+0.8+1.5
39Virginia+19.054,691-0.7-3.7
40Maine+18.948,518-0.5+0.9
41Rhode Island+18.153,353-0.4-0.9
42Missouri+18.050,611+0.5-0.9
43South Dakota+17.657,098-1.8+1.2
44Mississippi+17.442,878+0.6-3.6
45Oklahoma+17.349,361-0.7-1.4
46Louisiana+16.749,840-2.1-1.6
47Vermont+16.250,497-1.6-1.5
48North Dakota+16.258,415-2.2+5.5
49Connecticut+14.867,336-1.3+2.4
50Alaska+12.154,624-4.6-0.8